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Sending Data to the Host


usbs_start_tx_buffer -- Sending Data to the Host


#include <cyg/io/usb/usbs.h>

void usbs_start_tx_buffer(usbs_tx_endpoint* ep, const unsigned char* buffer, int length, void (*)(void*,int) complete_fn, void * complete_data);

void usbs_start_tx(usbs_tx_endpoint* ep);


usbs_start_tx_buffer is a USB-specific function to transfer data from peripheral to host. It can be used for bulk, interrupt or isochronous transfers, but not for control messages; instead those involve manipulating the usbs_control_endpoint data structure directly. The function takes five arguments:

  1. The first argument identifies the specific endpoint that should be used. Different USB devices will support different sets of endpoints and the device driver will provide appropriate data structures. The device driver's documentation should be consulted for details of which endpoints are available.

  2. The buffer and length arguments control the actual transfer. USB device drivers are not allowed to modify the buffer during the transfer, so the data can reside in read-only memory. The transfer will be for all the data specified, and it is the responsibility of higher-level code to make sure that the host is expecting this amount of data. For isochronous transfers the USB specification imposes an upper bound of 1023 bytes, but a smaller limit may be set in the enumeration data. Interrupt transfers have an upper bound of 64 bytes or less, as per the enumeration data. Bulk transfers are more complicated because they can involve multiple 64-byte packets plus a terminating packet of less than 64 bytes, so the basic USB specification does not impose an upper limit on the total transfer size. Instead it is left to higher-level protocols to specify an appropriate upper bound. If the peripheral attempts to send more data than the host is willing to accept then the resulting behaviour is undefined and may well depend on the specific host operating system being used.

    For bulk transfers, the USB device driver or the underlying hardware will automatically split the transfer up into the appropriate number of full-size 64-byte packets plus a single terminating packet, which may be 0 bytes.

  3. usbs_start_tx_buffer is non-blocking. It merely starts the transmit operation, and does not wait for completion. At some later point the USB device driver will invoke the completion function parameter with two arguments: the completion data defined by the last parameter, and a result field. This result will be either an error code < 0, or the amount of data transferred which should correspond to the length argument. The most likely errors are -EPIPE to indicate that the connection between the host and the target has been broken, and -EAGAIN for when the endpoint has been halted. Specific USB device drivers may define additional error conditions.

The normal sequence of events is that the USB device driver will update the appropriate hardware registers. At some point after that the host will attempt to fetch data by transmitting an IN token. Since a transmit operation is now in progress the peripheral can send a packet of data, and the host will generate an ACK. At this point the USB hardware will generate an interrupt, and the device driver will service this interrupt and arrange for a DSR to be called. Isochronous and interrupt transfers involve just a single packet. However, bulk transfers may involve multiple packets so the device driver has to check whether there is more data to send and set things up for the next packet. When the device driver DSR detects a complete transfer it will inform higher-level code by invoking the supplied completion function.

This means that the completion function will normally be invoked by a DSR and not in thread context - although some USB device drivers may have a different implementation. Therefore the completion function is restricted in what it can do, in particular it must not make any calls that will or may block such as locking a mutex or allocating memory. The kernel documentation should be consulted for more details of DSR's and interrupt handling generally.

It is possible that the completion function will be invoked before usbs_start_tx_buffer returns. Such an event would be unusual because the transfer cannot happen until the next time the host tries to fetch data from this peripheral, but it may happen if, for example, another interrupt happens and a higher priority thread is scheduled to run. Also, if the endpoint is currently halted then the completion function will be invoked immediately with -EAGAIN: typically this will happen in the current thread rather than in a separate DSR. The completion function is allowed to start another transfer immediately by calling usbs_start_tx_buffer again.

USB device drivers are not expected to perform any locking. It is the responsibility of higher-level code to ensure that there is only one transmit operation for a given endpoint in progress at any one time. If there are concurrent calls to usbs_start_tx_buffer then the resulting behaviour is undefined. For typical USB applications this does not present any problems because only piece of code will access a given endpoint at any particular time.

The following code fragment illustrates a very simple use of usbs_start_tx_buffer to implement a blocking transmit, using a semaphore to synchronise between the foreground thread and the DSR. For a simple example like this no completion data is needed.

static int error_code = 0;
static cyg_sem_t completion_wait;

static void
completion_fn(void* data, int result)
    error_code = result;

blocking_transmit(usbs_tx_endpoint* ep, const unsigned char* buf, int len)
    error_code = 0;
    usbs_start_tx_buffer(ep, buf, len, &completion_fn, NULL);
    return error_code;

There is also a utility function usbs_start. This can be used by code that wants to manipulate data endpoints directly, specifically the complete_fn, complete_data, buffer and buffer_size fields. usbs_start_tx just calls a function supplied by the device driver.