Code Confidencebuild

Control Endpoints


Control Endpoints -- Control endpoint data structure


#include <cyg/io/usb/usbs.h>

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
} usbs_control_endpoint;

usbs_control_endpoint Data Structure

The device driver for a USB slave device should supply one usbs_control_endpoint data structure per USB device. This corresponds to endpoint 0 which will be used for all control message interaction between the host and that device. The data structure is also used for internal management purposes, for example to keep track of the current state. In a typical USB peripheral there will only be one such data structure in the entire system, but if there are multiple USB slave ports, allowing the peripheral to be connected to multiple hosts, then there will be a separate data structure for each one. The name or names of the data structures are determined by the device drivers. For example, the SA11x0 USB device driver package provides usbs_sa11x0_ep0.

The operations on a control endpoint do not fit cleanly into a conventional open/read/write I/O model. For example, when the host sends a control message to the USB peripheral this may be one of four types: standard, class, vendor and reserved. Some or all of the standard control messages will be handled automatically by the common USB slave package or by the device driver itself. Other standard control messages and the other types of control messages may be handled by a class-specific package or by application code. Although it would be possible to have devtab entries such as /dev/usbs_ep0/standard and /dev/usbs_ep0/class, and then support read and write operations on these devtab entries, this would add significant overhead and code complexity. Instead, all of the fields in the control endpoint data structure are public and can be manipulated directly by higher level code if and when required.

Control endpoints involve a number of callback functions, with higher-level code installing suitable function pointers in the control endpoint data structure. For example, if the peripheral involves vendor-specific control messages then a suitable handler for these messages should be installed. Although the exact details depend on the device driver, typically these callback functions will be invoked at DSR level rather than thread level. Therefore, only certain eCos functions can be invoked; specifically, those functions that are guaranteed not to block. If a potentially blocking function such as a semaphore wait or a mutex lock operation is invoked from inside the callback then the resulting behaviour is undefined, and the system as a whole may fail. In addition, if one of the callback functions involves significant processing effort then this may adversely affect the system's real time characteristics. The eCos kernel documentation should be consulted for more details of DSR handling.


The usbs_control_endpoint data structure contains the following fields related to initialization.

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
    const usbs_enumeration_data* enumeration_data;
    void                         (*start_fn)(usbs_control_endpoint*);

It is the responsibility of higher-level code, usually the application, to define the USB enumeration data. This needs to be installed in the control endpoint data structure early on during system startup, before the USB device is actually started and any interaction with the host is possible. Details of the enumeration data are supplied in the section USB Enumeration Data. Typically, the enumeration data is constant for a given peripheral, although it can be constructed dynamically if necessary. However, the enumeration data cannot change while the peripheral is connected to a host: the peripheral cannot easily claim to be a keyboard one second and a printer the next.

The start_fn member is normally accessed via the utility usbs_start rather than directly. It is provided by the device driver and should be invoked once the system is fully initialized and interaction with the host is possible. A typical implementation would change the USB data pins from tristated to active. If the peripheral is already plugged into a host then the latter should detect this change and start interacting with the peripheral, including requesting the enumeration data.


There are three usbs_control_endpoint fields related to the current state of a USB slave device, plus some state constants and an enumeration of the possible state changes:

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
    int     state;
    void    (*state_change_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, void*,
                               usbs_state_change, int);
    void*   state_change_data;

#define USBS_STATE_DETACHED             0x01
#define USBS_STATE_ATTACHED             0x02
#define USBS_STATE_POWERED              0x03
#define USBS_STATE_DEFAULT              0x04
#define USBS_STATE_ADDRESSED            0x05
#define USBS_STATE_CONFIGURED           0x06
#define USBS_STATE_MASK                 0x7F
#define USBS_STATE_SUSPENDED            (1 << 7)

typedef enum {
    USBS_STATE_CHANGE_POWERED           = 3,
    USBS_STATE_CHANGE_RESET             = 4,    
} usbs_state_change;

The USB standard defines a number of states for a given USB peripheral. The initial state is detached, where the peripheral is either not connected to a host at all or, from the host's perspective, the peripheral has not started up yet because the relevant pins are tristated. The peripheral then moves via intermediate attached and powered states to its default or reset state, at which point the host and peripheral can actually start exchanging data. The first message is from host to peripheral and provides a unique 7-bit address within the local USB network, resulting in a state change to addressed. The host then requests enumeration data and performs other initialization. If everything succeeds the host sends a standard set-configuration control message, after which the peripheral is configured and expected to be up and running. Note that some USB device drivers may be unable to distinguish between the detached, attached and powered states but generally this is not important to higher-level code.

A USB host should generate at least one token every millisecond. If a peripheral fails to detect any USB traffic for a period of time then typically this indicates that the host has entered a power-saving mode, and the peripheral should do the same if possible. This corresponds to the suspended bit. The actual state is a combination of suspended and the previous state, for example configured and suspended rather than just suspended. When the peripheral subsequently detects USB traffic it would switch back to the configured state.

The USB device driver and the common USB slave package will maintain the current state in the control endpoint's state field. There should be no need for any other code to change this field, but it can be examined whenever appropriate. In addition whenever a state change occurs the generic code can invoke a state change callback function. By default, no such callback function will be installed. Some class-specific packages such as the USB-ethernet package will install a suitable function to keep track of whether or not the host-peripheral connection is up, that is whether or not ethernet packets can be exchanged. Application code can also update this field. If multiple parties want to be informed of state changes, for example both a class-specific package and application code, then typically the application code will install its state change handler after the class-specific package and is responsible for chaining into the package's handler.

The state change callback function is invoked with four arguments. The first identifies the control endpoint. The second is an arbitrary pointer: higher-level code can fill in the state_change_data field to set this. The third argument specifies the state change that has occurred, and the last argument supplies the previous state (the new state is readily available from the control endpoint structure).

eCos does not provide any utility functions for updating or examining the state_change_fn or state_change_data fields. Instead, it is expected that the fields in the usbs_control_endpoint data structure will be manipulated directly. Any utility functions would do just this, but at the cost of increased code and cpu overheads.

Standard Control Messages

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
    unsigned char       control_buffer[8];
    usbs_control_return (*standard_control_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, void*);
    void*               standard_control_data;
} usbs_control_endpoint;

typedef enum {
} usbs_control_return;

extern usbs_control_return usbs_handle_standard_control(struct usbs_control_endpoint*);

When a USB peripheral is connected to the host it must always respond to control messages sent to endpoint 0. Control messages always consist of an initial eight-byte header, containing fields such as a request type. This may be followed by a further data transfer, either from host to peripheral or from peripheral to host. The way this is handled is described in the Buffer Management section below.

The USB device driver will always accept the initial eight-byte header, storing it in the control_buffer field. Then it determines the request type: standard, class, vendor, or reserved. The way in which the last three of these are processed is described in the section Other Control Messages. Some standard control messages will be handled by the device driver itself; typically the set-address request and the get-status, set-feature and clear-feature requests when applied to endpoints.

If a standard control message cannot be handled by the device driver itself, the driver checks the standard_control_fn field in the control endpoint data structure. If higher-level code has installed a suitable callback function then this will be invoked with two argument, the control endpoint data structure itself and the standard_control_data field. The latter allows the higher level code to associate arbitrary data with the control endpoint. The callback function can return one of three values: HANDLED to indicate that the request has been processed; UNKNOWN if the message should be handled by the default code; or STALL to indicate an error condition. If higher level code has not installed a callback function or if the callback function has returned UNKNOWN then the device driver will invoke a default handler, usbs_handle_standard_control provided by the common USB slave package.

The default handler can cope with all of the standard control messages for a simple USB peripheral. However, if the peripheral involves multiple configurations, multiple interfaces in a configuration, or alternate settings for an interface, then this cannot be handled by generic code. For example, a multimedia peripheral may support various alternate settings for a given data source with different bandwidth requirements, and the host can select a setting that takes into account the current load. Clearly higher-level code needs to be aware when the host changes the current setting, so that it can adjust the rate at which data is fed to or retrieved from the host. Therefore the higher-level code needs to install its own standard control callback and process appropriate messages, rather than leaving these to the default handler.

The default handler will take care of the get-descriptor request used to obtain the enumeration data. It has support for string descriptors but ignores language encoding issues. If language encoding is important for the peripheral then this will have to be handled by an application-specific standard control handler.

The header file <cyg/io/usb/usb.h> defines various constants related to control messages, for example the function codes corresponding to the standard request types. This header file is provided by the common USB package, not by the USB slave package, since the information is also relevant to USB hosts.

Other Control Messages

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
    usbs_control_return (*class_control_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, void*);
    void*               class_control_data;
    usbs_control_return (*vendor_control_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, void*);
    void*               vendor_control_data;
    usbs_control_return (*reserved_control_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, void*);
    void*               reserved_control_data;
} usbs_control_endpoint;

Non-standard control messages always have to be processed by higher-level code. This could be class-specific packages. For example, the USB-ethernet package will handle requests for getting the MAC address and for enabling or disabling promiscuous mode. In all cases the device driver will store the initial request in the control_buffer field, check for an appropriate handler, and invoke it with details of the control endpoint and any handler-specific data that has been installed alongside the handler itself. The handler should return either USBS_CONTROL_RETURN_HANDLED to report success or USBS_CONTROL_RETURN_STALL to report failure. The device driver will report this to the host.

If there are multiple parties interested in a particular type of control messages, it is the responsibility of application code to install an appropriate handler and process the requests appropriately.

Buffer Management

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
    unsigned char*      buffer;
    int                 buffer_size;
    void                (*fill_buffer_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*);
    void*               fill_data;
    int                 fill_index;
    usbs_control_return (*complete_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, int);
} usbs_control_endpoint;

Many USB control messages involve transferring more data than just the initial eight-byte header. The header indicates the direction of the transfer, OUT for host to peripheral or IN for peripheral to host. It also specifies a length field, which is exact for an OUT transfer or an upper bound for an IN transfer. Control message handlers can manipulate six fields within the control endpoint data structure to ensure that the transfer happens correctly.

For an OUT transfer, the handler should examine the length field in the header and provide a single buffer for all the data. A class-specific protocol would typically impose an upper bound on the amount of data, allowing the buffer to be allocated statically. The handler should update the buffer and complete_fn fields. When all the data has been transferred the completion callback will be invoked, and its return value determines the response sent back to the host. The USB standard allows for a new control message to be sent before the current transfer has completed, effectively cancelling the current operation. When this happens the completion function will also be invoked. The second argument to the completion function specifies what has happened, with a value of 0 indicating success and an error code such as -EPIPE or -EIO indicating that the current transfer has been cancelled.

IN transfers are a little bit more complicated. The required information, for example the enumeration data, may not be in a single contiguous buffer. Instead a mechanism is provided by which the buffer can be refilled, thus allowing the transfer to move from one record to the next. Essentially, the transfer operates as follows:

  1. When the host requests another chunk of data (typically eight bytes), the USB device driver will examine the buffer_size field. If non-zero then buffer contains at least one more byte of data, and then buffer_size is decremented.

  2. When buffer_size has dropped to 0, the fill_buffer_fn field will be examined. If non-null it will be invoked to refill the buffer.

  3. The fill_data and fill_index fields are not used by the device driver. Instead these fields are available to the refill function to keep track of the current state of the transfer.

  4. When buffer_size is 0 and fill_buffer_fn is NULL, no more data is available and the transfer has completed.

  5. Optionally a completion function can be installed. This will be invoked with 0 if the transfer completes successfully, or with an error code if the transfer is cancelled because of another control messsage.

If the requested data is contiguous then the only fields that need to be manipulated are buffer and buffer_size, and optionally complete_fn. If the requested data is not contiguous then the initial control message handler should update fill_buffer_fn and some or all of the other fields, as required. An example of this is the handling of the standard get-descriptor control message by usbs_handle_standard_control.

Polling Support

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
    void                (*poll_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*);
    int                 interrupt_vector;
} usbs_control_endpoint;

In nearly all circumstances USB I/O should be interrupt-driven. However, there are special environments such as RedBoot where polled operation may be appropriate. If the device driver can operate in polled mode then it will provide a suitable function via the poll_fn field, and higher-level code can invoke this regularly. This polling function will take care of all endpoints associated with the device, not just the control endpoint. If the USB hardware involves a single interrupt vector then this will be identified in the data structure as well.

Dynamic Data Endpoint Support

typedef struct usbs_control_endpoint {
    struct usbs_rx_endpoint* (*get_rxep_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, cyg_uint8);
    struct usbs_tx_endpoint* (*get_txep_fn)(struct usbs_control_endpoint*, cyg_uint8);
} usbs_control_endpoint;

USB slave hardware may support multiple USB configurations via configurable data endpoints. If the device driver can support such operation, it will provide a pair of functions via the get_rxep_fn and get_txep_fn fields which enable retrieval of the receive and transmit data endpoint structures using the logical endpoint IDs specified in a USB class descriptor. Access to these functions from higher-level code is provided by the usbs_get_rx_endpoint and usbs_get_tx_endpoint functions.