The USB-ethernet package provides two main modes of operation. In the first mode it provides a network device driver for use by a TCP/IP stack running inside the USB peripheral. All incoming ethernet packets should be passed up the TCP/IP stack, and only the stack will generate outgoing packets. Apart from initialization and possibly certain control operations, higher-level code will not interact with the USB-ethernet package directly.
In the second mode there is no TCP/IP stack running inside the USB
peripheral. For example, a simple USB-ethernet converter has an
ethernet chip and a USB port: ethernet packets received by the
ethernet chip need to be forwarded to the USB host, and ethernet
packets sent by the USB host need to be sent out of the ethernet chip.
usbs_eth_start_tx allow for this lower-level
access to the USB-ethernet package.
The two modes of operation are mutually exclusive. If the network device driver mode is enabled then application code should communicate at the TCP/IP level, and not by using the lower-level functions. Instead, it is the network device driver that will make use of these functions, and it assumes that it has exclusive access. The package does not perform any locking.
The transmit and receive functions work in much the same way. The
first argument identifies the
structure that should be used. For the majority of applications this
will be usbs_eth0. The second argument specifies
the location of the ethernet packet; outgoing for
usbs_eth_start_tx and incoming for
usbs_eth_start_rx. This buffer should correspond
to the protocol:
Outgoing packets can consist of up to 1516 bytes, consisting of a two-byte header specific to USB-ethernet followed by a standard ethernet frame (a header with 6-byte destination address, 6-byte source address and a further two bytes, followed by a payload of up to 1500 bytes). The two-byte USB-ethernet header consists simply of the size of the ethernet frame, i.e. the size of the rest of the packet not including the USB-ethernet header, with the least significant byte first.
For incoming packets the supplied buffer should usually be at least 1516 bytes. There may be special circumstances in which a smaller buffer might be safe; for example, if the host-side device driver is modified to support only smaller packets. Once the packet has been received the buffer will contain a two-byte header specific to USB-ethernet, followed by a normal ethernet frame. The header gives the size of the ethernet frame, excluding the header, with the least significant byte first.
usbs_eth_start_rx are asynchronous: the transfer
is started and, some time later, a completion function will be invoked.
The third and fourth arguments to both
usbs_eth_start_rx supply the completion function
and an argument to that function respectively. The completion function
will be invoked with three arguments: a pointer to the
usbs_eth data structure, usually
usbs_eth0; the supplied completion data ; and a
return code field. A negative value indicates that an error occurred,
for example -EPIPE if the connection between USB
host and peripheral has been broken, or -EAGAIN if
an endpoint has been halted. A positive value indicates the total size
of the transfer, which should correspond to the size in the
USB-ethernet header plus an additional two bytes for the header
If the data transfer is succesful then the completion function will
typically be invoked in DSR context rather than in thread context,
although this depends on the implementation of the underlying USB
device driver. Therefore the completion function is restricted in what
it can do; in particular, it must not make any calls that will or may
block such as locking a mutex or allocating memory. The kernel
documentation should be consulted for more details of DSR's and
interrupt handling generally. Note that if the transfer finishes
quickly then the completion function may be invoked before
usbs_eth_start_tx returns. This is especially
likely to happen if the current thread is descheduled after starting
the data transfer but before returning from these functions.
For transmit operations, it is possible for
usbs_eth_start_tx to invoke the completion
function immediately. If there is no current connection between host
and target then the transmit will fail immediately with
-EPIPE. In addition the USB-ethernet package will
check the destination MAC address and make sure that the ethernet
frame really is intended for the host: either it must be for the
address specified in the initialization call
it must be a broadcast packet, or the host must have enabled